Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Organization Structure GTBank is structured as a multi-divisional and partially decentralized organization; see Exhibit 2 for organizational structure chart. Accordingly, each geographical region would be headed by a divisional head, which would be required to operate with a degree of autonomy over that region. All such divisional managers would report directly to the Managing Director, who in turn reports to the Board of Directors. Further down the line, each geographical region is sub-divided into business functions and report directly to regional managers. GTBank international is organized as a complete autonomous entity with little or no inference from the head office in Nigeria. Decisions are made based on the needs of the local market. All divisional heads report to the CountryÃ¢â¬â¢s Managing Director who reports to the executive director in charge of international banking. GTBankÃ¢â¬â¢s decision making is de-centralized from the home office ensuring adequate support for each of the regions or zones, with each of the functional groups reporting to a divisional head. Each division is expected to maintain its own balance sheet and PL report. Financial Health The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s top line and bottom line have grown each year since 2010, and profit has over doubled from 2010 to 2014, see Exhibit 3 for selected financial data. The Q3 reports for 2015 also show growth compared to same quarter 2014. Growth has not been consistent as there was a dip in 2013, which was attributed toShow MoreRelatedAn Assessment of the Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Nigerian Society: the Examples of Banking and Communication Industries18990 Words Ã |Ã 76 Pagesstakeholders including the government, the corporate organization itself, and the general public. The public contended that the payment of taxes and the fulfillment of other civic rights are enough grounds to have the liberty to take back from the society in terms of CSR undertaken by other stakeholders. Some ten year ago, what characterized the Nigerian society was fragrant pollution of the air, of the water and of the environment. Most corporate organizations are concerned about what t hey can take out ofRead MoreThe Role of Ict in Banking Operations13419 Words Ã |Ã 54 Pagessystem has undergone remarkable changes over the years, in terms of the number of institutions, ownership structure, as well as depth and breadth of operations. These changes have been influenced largely by challenges posed by deregulation of the financial sector, globalization of operations, technological innovations and adoption of supervisory and prudential requirements that conform to international standards (Elumelu, 2005) As at the end of June, 2004, there were 89 deposit money banks operating in
Exposure of corn plants to ionizing radiation such as gamma radiation can induce mutation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of varying levels of gamma radiation on growth parameters of Zea mays L. Ten seeds for each level of gamma radiation (0 krad, 10 krad, 30 krad and 50 krad) were planted and tested for the number of germinating seeds and plant height, using a meter stick or ruler. Data were collected for 30 days period and graphs and figures of the data were analyzed. Therefore, it can be inferred that the level of gamma radiation introduced to the plant would have adverse effect on the growth of corn plant; in terms of plant height, number of germinating seeds and its over-all survival rate. Thus, the higher the level of gamma radiation, the shorter the plants will become. Also, low levels of gamma radiation can improve capability of seeds to germinate. INTRODUCTION Mutations can be considered one of the most intriguing topics in biology, particularly in the field of genetics. It is a change in the nucleotide sequence of an organisms DNA, ultimately creating genetic diversity (Campbell Reece, 2008). Mutations are permanent changes in the genetic material. A change in the DNA sequence of a gene 3 can alter the amino acid sequence of the protein coded by the gene. Mutations range in extent from a single nucleotide to a large segment of a chromosome (Campbell, 2008). Mutations may either be spontaneous, or induced by physical and chemical agents (Mendioro, et. al. , 2013). Mutagenesis, the creation of mutation, can occur in various ways. It could be spontaneous which can happen when errors during DNA replication, repair, or recombination are present. Mutations can also be induced by mutagens such as physical or chemical agents which interact with the DNA to cause mutation by altering genetic message. One example of this is the mutagenic radiation which is a physical mutagen that includes non- ionizing radiation such as microwaves, light, radio waves and UV and ionizing radiation such as x-rays, gamma rays, beta and alpha particles and neutrons (Campbell and Reece, 2008). Radiation was the first mutagenic agent known, with its effect on genes was first reported in the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s. There are two major types of radiationÃ¢â¬âEM spectrum and ionizing radiation. Electromagnetic radiation consists of electric and magnetic waves while the ionizing radiation consists of X-rays and gamma-rays which are energetic enough to produce reactive ions that react with biological molecules (Al-Salhi et al. , 2005). Ionizing radiation produces a wide range of damage to cells due to the production of free radicals of water. Free radicals possess unpaired electrons that are chemically unstable and thus will interact with DNA, proteins, lipids in cell membranes, and other biomolecules. If ionizing radiation passes through a cell in the body, it can cause mutations in the cellÃ¢â¬â¢s DNA. This could lead to cancer, or to the death of the cell. The amount of damage in the cell is related to the dose of radiation it receives. The irradiation of seeds with high doses of gamma rays affects certain physiological and biochemical processes which might be vital for the survival of the organism. Previous studies reveal that treatment of seeds with high doses of gamma rays disturbs the synthesis of protein , hormone balance, leaf gas exchange, water exchange and enzyme activity. The morphological, structural, and the functional changes depend on the strength and the duration of the gamma-irradiation stress (Al-Salhi, et al. The extent of the effect of the usage of increasing strength of radiation can be studied using seeds pre-treated with radiation in varying strengths, grown in normal environmental conditions. The study involves subjecting certain number of the model organism, the corn (Zea mays L. ), to increasing strengths of radiation. Corn is a good experimental material for the study because its seeds are widely available. Radiation has been widespread and humans have created artificial sources of radiation which contribute to radiation exposure. Among these are medical testing e. g. diagnostic X-rays, nuclear testing and power plants, and other products e. g. TVÃ¢â¬â¢s, smoke detectors, airport X-rays. Radiation, particularly ionizing radiation is proven to cause damage to cells and as a human carcinogenic. Evidences of these come from many different sources, including studies in atomic bomb survivors in Japan, people exposed during the Chernobyl nuclear accident, people treated with high doses of radiation for cancer and other conditions, and people exposed to high levels of radiation at work, such as uranium miners. Radiation induces mutation which could lead to damage in cells, thus, it is essential to acquire insights on the effect of radiation on the growth of organisms. The study aimed to determine the effect of increasing strengths of radiation on plant growth in corn and to verify that the amount of damage in the cell is related to the dose of radiation it receives. The specific objectives were 1. to observe the effects of different doses of radiation on plant growth in terms of height and % germination; and 2. to explain the possible mechanisms behind the observe effect of radiation on plant growth. The study was conducted at the Institute of Biological Sciences, University of the Philippines Los Banos, College, Laguna from July 15, 2013 to Sept 20, 2013. MATERIALS AND METHODS The experiment worked the effect of radiation on the growth and development of the corn plant. This made use of forty corn seeds with four different set- ups. In each set-up, ten Zea mays L. seedlings were planted in a plot and were treated with different dosage of gamma radiation- 0 krad (control), 10 krad, 30 krad and 50 krad. For thirty days, the corn plants were observed every Monday, Wednesday and Friday. August 28 and September 27 served as replacement for holidays while August 20, 23 and Sept 9, 20 were declared no classes. The plant average height in every set- ups was measured using a meter stick or ruler by the assigned person in each day. The data were recorded and compiled. Based on this data, percent germination and percent survival were calculated using these formula. % survival = Total no. of plants observed= 20 Results and Discussion Results showed that gamma irradiation can affect the germination of corn (Zea mays L. ) seeds. It can be observed that different doses of gamma rays have various effects on the total number of germinated seeds and its respective germination rate. As shown in Table 1, the control set-up (0 kr) has 20 out of 20 seeds germinated, and has a germination rate of 100 percent. In the 10 kr set-up, 20 out of 20 seeds germinated with a germination rate of 100 percent. In the 30 kr set-up, 18 out of 20 seeds germinated with a germination rate of 90 percent. In the 50 kr set-up, 0 out of 10 planted seeds germinated with a germination rate of 0 percent. Table 1. Percent Germination of Corn Plants. Plant Treatment Number of Germinated Seeds % Germination Control 20 100 10 krad 20 100 30 krad 18 90 50 krad 0 0 A positive tendency for the seed to germinate can be observed if a low or no dosage of gamma radiation was introduced to the seedlings. However, high levels of gamma radiation had an adverse effect on seed germination. Furthermore, very high levels of gamma radiation may lead to cell death which is a result of the inability of the DNA to repair breaks caused by mutagens such as gamma radiation. In relation to these results, another relationship can be determined. It can be observed that an increase in dosage of gamma rays irradiated decreases the survival rate of corn plants. As shown in Figure 2, the control set-up has a survival rate of 90 percent. The 10 krad set-up has a survival rate of 65 percent. The 30 krad set-up has a survival rate of 40 percent. Meanwhile, the survival rate of the 50 krad set-up cannot be defined since it has a zero percent germination rate. Table 2. Percent Survival of Corn Plants. Plant Treatment Number of Alive Seeds % Survival Control 20 65 10 krad 20 40 30 krad 18 33 50 krad 0 0 The relationship between varying doses of gamma irradiation and the germination and survival rates of corn plants can be observed in Figure 1. Figure 1. % Germination and % Survival of Corn Plants under gamma radiation. Table 3 shows that the corn plants treated with 10 krad of gamma radiation has the highest mean height () followed by the control with a mean height of cm. The 30 krad treatment yielded a height cm while the 50 krad treatment had the shortest height among the treatments with a height of cm. Table 3. Average height (cm) of Zea mays L. for 8 weeks. TREATMENT Week CONTROL 10 krad 30 krad 50 krad 1 2 3 33. 04 33. 35 21. 25 7. 57 4 47. 33 48. 37 25. 33 0 5 62. 64 61. 14 43. 38 0 6 69. 83 74. 48 50. 15 2. 95 7 51. 48 62. 17 40. 07 0 8 52. 61 60. 73 45. 7 0 MEAN VALUES In order to discuss the effect of gamma irradiation on the germination and development of corn, it is a must to discuss first the mechanism of gamma irradiation. Photons of electromagnetic radiation are oscillating pulses of energy, without electric charge, and therefore they continue along a straight line in their passage between atoms of a material. When a photon collides with a charged atom particle, however, it induces the particle to oscillate and therefore yields up some or all of its energy. The effects of a collision between a gamma- or X-ray photon and an atomic particle are various and depend on the energy of the photon (Purdom, 1963). If the photon is of relatively low energy (which was the kind of ionizing energy that was used in the experiment) and it collides with a planetary electron, the electron may absorb the energy of the photon. This additional energy may drive the electron right out of the atom and so ionise it. The action of a low-energy electron and the later consequences are also the same, chemical action or fluorescence, and heat production (Purdom, 1963). At the molecular level ionizing radiation causes the ionization of water and other molecules around the DNA, forming free radicals. These free radicals can then attack the structure of DNA with its unpaired electron (Starr, 2000). Considering the radiation chemistry of the solutions, the main difficulty arises from the high number of reactive species which are formed during the primary processes. In water, at least five reactive species are formed: H2O H2O*, H2O+, e-, HÃ¢â¬ ¢, Ã¢â¬ ¢OH Also, the doses required to produce appreciable numbers of free radicals which can be detected in dry materials are in the same dose range used for biological experiments in the same material. For instance, in dry seeds we can detect radicals with doses as low as 5 kr, where 10 to 80 kr is the biological range (Conger, 1963). This means that using ionizing energy with even low dosage in experiments will still ensure the formation of free radicals in the irradiated cells. This explains the likelihood of mutation upon irradiating a cell or an organism with ionizing energy. At the cytological level ionizing radiation produces two readily discernible effects: chromosome aberrations and mitotic inhibition (Haber, 1972). During the normal mitotic cycle in unirradiated cells, individual chromosomes seem to maintain their integrity without breakage or rearrangements. After irradiation, however, chromosomes or strands of chromosomes can break at various points along their lengths. At the subsequent telophase an acentric fragment is unable to move to either of the newly constituted daughter nuclei. Such chromosome fragments remain outside of the nuclei and their genes are lost to further progeny of the original, irradiated mother cell. This type of deletion is the simplest type of chromosomal aberrations that leads to gene deficiencies in daughter nuclei produced by mitosis after irradiation. Another type of chromosomal abnormality results from rejoining of two different broken chromosomes in such a manner that the newly formed structure has two centromeres. If the two centromeres happen to move to two opposite poles at anaphase, then the chromosomal material becomes stretched between them to produce a chromosome bridge across the cytoplasm the genes on this extranuclear chromosome bridge are lost at the progeny of the irradiated cell (Haber, 1972). SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The effect of varying radiation was determined by exposing corn seeds to different radiations: 0 krad, 10 krad, 30 krad, and 50 krad. There were twenty seeds per treatment, and each set-up was planted in the same place and subject to the same amount of sunlight and water. Within eight weeks, the growth, in terms of height was measured and the % germination and % survival were calculated. Results showed that the control set-up yielded the highest value of % germination and survival and average height (100%, 65, cm) compared to the treated corn seeds. The corn seeds treated with 10 krad radiations had 100% germination, 40 % survival and the average value for height was cm, while corn seeds treated with 30 krad had 90 % germination, 33 % survival and average height of cm. Corn seeds treated with 50 krad radiation yielded 0% germination and survival with average height of cm. It is highly recommended that the experiment must be conducted in a well-maintained environment, that is, free from destructive factors. Some of the factors that contributed to the possible errors in the results of the experiment were environmental factors (e. g. wind, rain, and weather), physical agents (e. g. roaming animals), inappropriate soil type, inaccurate measurement of the plant height and lack of maintenance.
Thursday, April 23, 2020
Changes are an essential element of development, which means that for an enterprise or an organization, a sudden change is rather a reason to accept the new knowledge and develop a new strategy rather than force the traditional style into the renewed organization.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Modifying the Delivery of an Angels of Hope Service: New Prospects and New Opportunities specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Taking such an establishment as a non-profit organization known as Angel of Hope, one can possibly predict that, given the current changes, the organization strategy needs to be developed and brought to a new level. Once realizing what [opportunities the organization can reach for, given all the peculiarities of a non-profit organization it is, one will be able to suggest the proper course for its further development and the dynamics of its growth. First of all, to determine the course of conduct for t he head of the organization and to suggest a certain solution, one needs to consider the peculiarities of the company, its current state of affairs and the type of services which its delivers. Therefore, it can be considered that the organization is completely independent from any sort of patronage. If the situation did not demand immediate actions and certain funds, Angels of Hope would continue providing their aid to those in need. The organization used to receive ax-deductible gifts and grants to be used for social amenities, which allows to suggest that, to deliver the goods to the people who need it, the organization uses the means of transportation which are considered the fastest. Consequently, the key thing which Angels of Hope pay large amount of money for is the time. However, the organization also occasionally borrows money, which can be used as the way to survive the sudden change and to adjust to the rapidly changing environment (Zhu, 2007, 123). Despite the fact that b orrowing will trigger the necessity to search for even more funds to return the borrowed money, the given policy can still be a way out for the time being while the organization is adjusting to the new environment.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, there can be an even better way out of the give situation. A peculiar solution offered by the Muwamba (n. d.), the delivery of the goods to the regions which are the closest to the given affiliate of the organization does seem efficient. Likewise, other affiliates of the Angels of Hope will provide the nearby regions with the required help. Thus, the maximum efficiency will be achieved with the minimum losses. According to Muwamba (n. d.), the given approach will allow a non-profit organization to Ã¢â¬Å"become more efficient in service delivery as the linkages have opened up more resources to themÃ¢â¬ (Muwamba, n. d.). Another interesting idea which Muwamba offered as a means to raise funds for a non-profit organization and which can actually work for the Angles of Hope as well is engaging into capital campaigns to gain more weight and possibly an award; as Muwamba assures, several companies already Ã¢â¬Å"have engaged in capital campaign drives in which they request funding from the private sector with a clear proposal on how the funds will be used to improve their service deliveryÃ¢â¬ (Muwamba, n. d.). In addition, it can be possible to turn the delivery of the social services into an event which more people can learn about and which will be able to serve as a means to attract the people who can fund the organization. Waters, Burnett, Lamm and Lucas (2009) explain, the given tactics can be quite efficient when using the proper media: Social media provide a variety of ways for users to become involved with organizations [Ã¢â¬ ¦] found that nonprofit organizations use social media to streamlin e their management functions, interact with volunteers and donors, and educate others about their programs and services. Through interactions with stakeholders on Facebook and other social media applications, organizations seek to develop relationships with important publics. (Waters, Burnett, Lamm Lucas, 2009, 103) It cannot be denied that the above-mentioned means of fundraising and efficient delivery of certain goods also have their flaws; among the most obvious ones, one must point out the fact that each of the strategies require great amount of time. However, given the existing state of affairs, the suggested approaches are the optimal decisions and the most winning scenario imaginable. Once the organization starts standing on its own feet and regains its financial status, the previous financial strategy can be suggested instead. Thus, it is obvious that at present, the organization needs to reconsider its way of spending the money and distributing the funds. Since the organiz ation does not aim at gaining money and does not strive on a commercial profit, it must be admitted that, in the given slot of time, when the organization has to survive considerable changes, the most appropriate decision will be to deliver the services with the minimum amount of money spent on the delivery.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Modifying the Delivery of an Angels of Hope Service: New Prospects and New Opportunities specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus, the quality and the amount of the services will be guaranteed high, which is obviously the aim of the company. Once people realize that the organization aims at assisting a certain layer of population, it can be suggested that the fundraising will become easier with the help of sponsors. Reference List Muwamba, D. (n. d.). Non profit organization service delivery amidst the financialÃ Crisis. Web. Waters, R. D., Burnett, E., Lamm, A. Lucas, J. (200 9). Engaging stakeholders through social networking: How nonprofit organizations are using Facebook. Public Relations Review, 35(2), 102-106. Zhu, D. (2007). Improving municipal solid waste management in India: A sourcebookÃ for policymakers and practitioners. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications. This essay on Modifying the Delivery of an Angels of Hope Service: New Prospects and New Opportunities was written and submitted by user Kiera Christensen to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
buy custom Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders essay Post-traumatic Stress Disorders (PTSD) can be described as mental disorders that are experienced after an exposure to a disturbing event such as war, plane crush, domestic violence, earthquakes etc. When one is exposed to such horrifying events, s/he takes quite a good amount of time to forget and during that period, the victim experiences biological and psychological changes. Throughout history, wars have been known to trigger psychological problems especially to soldiers who after returning home; they become unable to adjust to home life after the war. This work is meant to explore on the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders that are experienced by the Iraq War veterans, with special focus on the causes, the Iraq conditions that contributed to these disorders, the symptoms of PTSD as well as the how the war affected the soldiers and their families. The work will also give the statistics on the soldiers who returned home with psychological problems after the war. Most of the veteran soldiers were deployed to go and help in fighting the Iraq War. However most of them returned home with signs of PTSD. This was due to several factors that contributed to the large number of veteran soldiers suffering from PTSD. Some of these include preparedness in which some of the soldiers feel guilty and angry that they did not receive enough preparations on how to handle some situations such as exposure to biological and nuclear weapons. In such situations, they became helpless and this always haunted them that they were insufficient during the war. Therefore it was this persistent anger and the feeling of guilty that increased the victims risks for PTSD (Litz and Orsilo 25). Another cause of the many psychological problems experienced by the veteran war participants is exposure. The Iraq war involved a more conventional exposure to weapon firing therefore one was anxious that he may be fired by the enemy, be fired accidentally by a colleague or fire someone. Most of them were also exposed to witnessing a friend dying, injuries etc. All these memories stick in their minds and after the war; it becomes difficult for them to remember therefore they keep on haunting them (Litz and Orsilo 25). The aftermath of the war may also be a serious cause of the psychological problems experienced by the veterans. The aftermath exposure to seeing and handling bodies of dead soldiers and civilians, sounds of dying women and men crying for their lives, smell of decomposing bodies etc were very demoralizing and disturbing (Litz and Orsilo 25). The exposure to biological, chemical and radiological weapons also affected the health of these soldiers chronically. Some of the soldiers that were exposed to these chemical suffered chronic mental and psychological disorders as a result (Litz and Orsilo 26). However, while most of the psychological problems were as a result of the above mentioned factors, the conditions in Iraq also contributed to some extent. The working and living conditions were not conducive in the war zone. Soldiers had to cope and live with pressures and irritations connected to life. They experienced fatigue due to the long working days; sleeping less and working for many hours. They had to wake up very early and sleep very late, tired yet needed to prepare for the following days work (Litz and Orsilo 26). They also experienced unfavorable climate; being in a foreign land, they had to adjust to new climatic conditions. The soldiers also had to work with the available equipment which was sometimes not sufficient for all of them as the stores run out. They also had to eat foreign and sometimes undesirable food since they were in foreign land, thus they were forced to adapt to different culture and foods (Litz and Orsilo 26). Even though it is obvious that these con ditions are non-traumatizing, they strain the individuals ability to cope thus contributing to post-traumatic problems. Most of the veterans that were involved in the Iraq war experienced some of the most chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders. The severity of these disorders however depended largely on the degree to which the victim was exposed. Victims of PTSD are reported to exhibit three distinct groups of symptoms (Wilson, Friedman and Lindy 336). Among these is arousal which is characterized by lack oof concentration, the victim tends to avoid the people around him, lack of sleep, quick in angering etc. Re-experiencing is another group of symptoms which includes nightmares, disturbing thoughts, persisting flashbacks and emotional Distress when the victim remembers of the traumatic event. The other group of symptoms is avoidance in which the victim tends to avoid thinking of the event, the victim becomes inactive and develops low concern in activities, s/he tends to keep distance from the other people and his emotions become numb (Wilson, Friedman and Lindy 336). Some of the war effects that the veterans and their families experienced included loses of their loved ones. Most of these soldiers when they returned from the war committed suicide because of the stresses that keep on haunting them (Korb and Duggan 5). Another effect of the war is divorce. The rate of divorce has been reported to increase at a very high rate especially by those returning from the war. This is due to the psychological problems which contribute to drug abuse, drinking and domestic violence which in turn lead to divorce (Korb and Duggan 5-6). It is reported that one in every five soldiers returning from the war is experiencing or shows some symptoms of PTSD. This number therefore totalizes to approximately 345,000 who have so far been diagnosed of PTSD (Korb and Duggan 4). It can therefore be concluded that Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders (PTSD) are psychological problems that one suffers when exposed to traumatic events such as war, accidents etc. The effects of the Iraq war were very intense that they affected both the participants and their families as a result of the PTSD. Some of the causes of PTSD included lack of enough preparation for the war, exposure to terrifying sights such as rotting bodies, exposure to weapon firing, biological and nuclear weapons. The working and living conditions in Iraq were also not favorable and to some extent contributed to the chances of suffering from PTSD. The symptoms of PTSD are grouped into three categories; arousal, avoidance and re-experiencing. These symptoms have been diagnosed in over 345,000 soldiers that returned from the war. Buy custom Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders essay
Sunday, March 1, 2020
How to Make a Benzoic Acid Snow Globe Its fun and easy to make your own snow globe using water and snow made from glitter or crushed egg shells, but you can use chemistry to make crystal snow that looks a lot more like the real thing. Snow is made from crystals of water. In this project, you precipitate crystals of benzoic acid, which has the advantage of not melting at room temperature. Heres how you make the snow globe: Snow Globe Materials baby food jar or ointment jar (~4 oz)1 g benzoic acidwaterbeaker or pyrex measuring cuphot plate or microwave or coffee makerstirring rod or spoonhot glue gundecoration to glue to the bottom of the snow globe, like a small plastic toyforceps or tweezerselectrical tape (optional) Assemble the Snow Globe There are a couple of ways to do this. There is my do-it-at-home method and then what you might want to do in a lab. Lets start with the lab instructions...In a 250 ml flask, stir 1 g benzoic acid into 75 ml of water.Heat the solution to dissolve the benzoic acid. You do not need to boil the water.Alternatively, you can measure 75 ml (5 tablespoons) of water that you heated in a microwave or coffee maker. Dissolve the benzoic acid in the hot water.Put down a bead of hot glue on the inside of the jar lid (or you can put it on the bottom of a clean, dry jar if you dont plan to invert the sealed jar).Use tweezers or forceps to position your decoration in the glue.While the glue is cooling, take a look at your benzoic acid solution. As it approaches room temperature, the benzoic acid will precipitate out of solution to form snow. The rate of cooling affects the snow. Slow cooling produces fine crystals. Quick cooling produces something more like snowballs than snowflakes.Pour the room-te mperature benzoic acid solution into the glass jar. Fill the jar as full as possible with water. Air pockets will cause the benzoic acid to form clumps.Put the lid on the jar. If desired, seal the jar with hot glue or electrical tape.Gently shake the jar to see the pretty snow! How the Snow Works Benzoic acid doesnt readily dissolve in room temperature water, but if you heat the water the solubility of the molecule is increased (similar to dissolving sugar in water to make rock candy). Cooling the solution causes the benzoic acid to precipitate back into solid form. Slow cooling of the solution allows the benzoic acid to form prettier, more snow-like flakes than if you had simply mixed benzoic acid powder with water. The cooling rate of water into ice affects how real snow appears, too. Safety Tips Benzoic acid is used as a preservative in food, so as chemicals go it is pretty safe. However, pure benzoic acid can be very irritating to skin and mucous membranes (heres an MSDS for you). Also, it can be toxic if large quantities are ingested. So... wear gloves and eye protection when preparing your solution. Excess solution can be washed down the drain (can neutralize it with baking soda first if you like). I wouldnt recommend this project for very young children. It should be fine for grade school kids with adult supervision. Its mainly intended as a fun project for teens and adults. The snow globe is not a toy- you dont want young children taking it apart and drinking the solution.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Risk Management - Essay Example Although CSA has been largely effective as security technology, it has a number of vulnerabilities that allow malicious attackers to carry out remove code executions on the network (Allen,2001). On the other hand, our organization employs the use of both behavior based antivirus and signature based antivirus. Antivirus has proven to be significantly effective particularly in the detection and deletion of suspicious programs in our systems. A major challenge with this technology is that antiviruses also have a number of security flaws and sometimes hackers have been able to evade detection by using malware. Finally our organization has also employed the use of file/HDD encryption technologies to make both the data and files we transfer over the network to be unreadable to unauthorized individuals. In terms of effectiveness, encryption is fully effective and does not only improve the security of the organizations data but is also easier to be applied by the users. There are a number of additional security controls that can be added to the security technologies in our organization to help prevent unauthorized persons from accessing our confidential information and sensitive systems. These controls include administrative, technical and managerial controls. With regard to the administrative controls, our organization still needs a number of controls such as well written policies, guidelines and procedures that can be used as a framework of reducing the various security risks facing our organizations network systems. For example some of the additional policies that our organization urgently need at the moment included a well developed corporate security policy as well as a password policy. On the other hand, the additional technical security controls required in our organization include IDS and firewalls. Additionally we also need to put in place other important technical security controls such as logical access controls as well as new version antivirus software. Fin ally our organization will require managerial security controls such as security guards to protect the physical installations within our organization, cameras as well as locks and doors. To effectively mitigate some of the security risks in our organization, there is need to include all these security controls and use them together with the security technologies that are currently in place. As earlier been noted, there are a number of security technologies and methodologies used in our organization. Some of the security technologies and methodologies we use in our company include Cisco security agent (CSA), Antivirus, and file Encryption. The use of CSA has significantly helped our organization to be able to minimize cases of end point intrusion by allowing our security experts to monitor the network traffic and system activity in our networks systems of our organization. Given the constant security threats that our organization has continued to face, Cisco Security argent has effec tively enabled our organization to overcome some of the vulnerabilities in its security systems. As a security technology, CSA has also provided an efficient infrastructure that supports various network operations in the organization. Finally although it has a few flaws, this security technology can effectively be integrated by the other technologies to